Ultraviolet rays have not been a new matter of discussion and have been known for long. But now, in the present era, the benefits of these rays and how they help kill infections have become the core matter of discussion. If we have to go with a basic definition of UVC, then it is the component of the electromagnetic spectrum, which falls between the region of light and X-Rays. Since this radiation remains invisible, its wavelength lies in the spectrum of 100nm to 400 nm. They are ever subdivided into four subcategories-
100nm to 200 nm
The wavelength of this UV is generally propagating in a vacuum.
200nm to 280 nm
This UVC is mostly for disinfecting and sensing.
280nm to 315 nm
This UVB is basically used for medical purposes and curing features.
315nm to 400nm
This UV covers all types of activities like printing, medical purposes, lithography, and curing.
More often, it is also noticed that the sun generates the most natural UV light, which is about ten percent of the UV rays. Among the UV radiation which reaches the ground level, 95% is consumed by UVA, and the rest, five percent is UVB. No percentage of measurable UVC reaches the surface of the earth.
Let’s Understand the Disinfection Property of UVC
In very evident research, it has been proved that, if biological organisms are exposed to high UV light, it is absorbed by RNA, DNA, and proteins in between the range of 200 nm to 300 nm. In the case of protein absorption, the cell walls are ruptured to kill the organism. In contrast, absorption by RNA or DNA is known for doubling both helix strands and forming thymine dimers. So, once enough dimers are created with the help of DNA, then the process of replication is disrupted without letting the cell replicate.
It is also true that killing pathogens with UV rays is unnecessary; instead, enough UV rays should be generated to stop the organisms from replicating. Therefore, it would be better to avert the replication process, which leads to the creation of pathogens and save the cost.
How is Complete Inactivation Ensured?
There are several different repair mechanisms evolved in bacteria to repair UV-induced lesions. These include the direct damage by a photolyase, removing the damage created by DNA glycosylase, an incision for the DNA equal to the damage by an endonuclease, or complete removal of the oligonucleotide which originates the damage. In short, the strategy of UV disinfection lies in providing high doses that can destroy nucleic acid so that it can't be repaired.
Moreover, disinfection is measured in terms of inactivation rate/ Log Reduction Value (LRV). It is a mathematical term used to show the numbers of relative live microbes that are eliminated by disinfection.
UV dose is the amount of radiation that a microbe is exposed to, and it also depends on the radiation of UV and exposure time. Today, many biological studies have produced widely welcomed standard UV dose requirements for most commonly targeted microbes for disinfection.
Today there are even Sensors for UVC Germicidal and Sterilization applications being developed worldwide. They offer UVC Radiation safety, which is performed through sensors. People usually think of UV radiation to be bad for their health and want to know the harm caused by the same. So, this is to clarify. UV radiations don't have to always prove harmful and destructive for their health.
Benefits of UV Radiation Exposure
We all must have often come across our elders say, that we should sit under the sun in the morning because it is good for our skin. This is true because our skin gets Vitamin D, which comes in the form of UVB radiation. Vitamin D plays a vital role in our body, providing calcium to our bones and muscles. But the amount of UVB exposure which is beneficial depends upon multiple factors like the color of our skin, amount of Vitamin D we take in our meals, usage of sunscreen, times of the day and year, depending upon the place we live, and interestingly, the clothes we wear.
Not only this but UV radiations are used for curing the health problems of people who don't respond to any other treatments. These are at times in the form of lamps, lasers, or a combination of both these devices, to be a topical medication, which increases UV sensitivity. This therapy is widely known as 'phototherapy', performed by a trained healthcare professional under a dermatologist. Studies have also shown that this treatment is helped in curing diseases like 'Rickets, Vitiligo, Psoriasis, and Eczema.
In this therapy, the patient is exposed to UV radiation doses with a scheduled timing regularly. In few cases, effective treatment is recorded when a patient's skin is treated with ointments, a prescribed drug for the doctor, or bathing, combined with UV sensitivity. This therapy is strictly practiced under the supervision of doctors to eliminate any risk factors which can pop up.
Axenic-UV is also one of the leading brands to manufacture these products for the wellbeing of people all across the globe and is constantly coming up with devices, which can help people in their issues.